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Introduction 1. Introduction The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is an integrated graphical user interface available across a number of UNIX platforms. The product consists of both a run-time environment and a development environment. The development environment provides facilities for developing applications which take advantage of CDE's user interface. SGI's CDE has a heritage in the TriTeal Enterprise Desktop (TED) which is no longer available. It contains a number of enhancements to the original Common Desktop Environment: TEDscape TEDscape enhances the Netscape Navigator to be a CDE compliant application. Graphical Workspace Manager (GWM) GWM gives you access to each workspace as well as a view of all open applications in the workspace. Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) Allows new authentication technologies to be "plugged-in". Session and Window Manager Tools Multiple screen support on more than one monitor, workspace menu enhancement and session manager enhancement. Other Enhancements Mail tool, key bindings and resource and environment variable enhancements. Note: Packaged with your software is a separate sheet that contains the Software License Agreement. This software is provided to you solely under the terms and conditions of the Software License Agreement. Please take a few moments to review the Agreement. This document contains the following chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Installation Information 3. Changes and Additions 4. Bug Fixes 5. Known Problems and Workarounds 6. Documentation Errors 1.1 Release Identification Information Following is the release identification information for Common Desktop Environment: Software Product Common Desktop Environment Version 6.5 Product Code SC4-AWE-6.5 System Software Requirements IRIX 6.5 or higher 1.2 Online Release Notes After you installed the online release notes for a product (the relnotes subsystem), you can view the release notes on your screen. Note: You can read the online release notes for most products before installing the software. Refer to the booklet in your CD-ROM case for more information. While running CDE, double click the Release Notes icon under the Information folder of Application Manager. Executing grelnotes or relnotes from the command line is an alternative. 1.3 Product Support Silicon Graphics, Inc., provides a comprehensive product support maintenance program for its products. If you are in the U.S. or Canada and would like support for your Silicon Graphics-supported products, contact the Technical Assistance Center at (800)800-4SGI. If you are outside these areas, contact the Silicon Graphics subsidiary or authorized distributor in your country.
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Installation Information 2. Installation Information This chapter lists supplemental information to the IRIS Software Installation Guide. The information listed here is product- and release-specific; use it with the Installation Guide to install this product. 2.1 Common Desktop Environment Subsystems Common Desktop Environment includes these subsystems: cde.sw.client CDE Client Configuration, 5.3. Client-side files outside /usr/dt, which enable CDE startup etc. This is mandatory for every system running CDE. It is the only subsystem required on clients with an NFS-mounted /usr/dt. cde.sw.eoe CDE Execution Environment, 5.3. Base software for run- time environment. cde.sw.dso CDE Shared Libraries, 5.3. Software libraries required to run any CDE programs. cde.sw.terminfo CDE Terminfo Data, 5.3. Terminal information file for dtterm. This could be installed on systems which will be accessed via dtterms even though CDE may not be installed. cde.sw.tedscape CDE TEDscape, 5.3. TEDscape enhances the Netscape Navigator to be a CDE compliant application. cde.sw.appbuilder CDE Application Builder, 5.3. A development tool for developing CDE applications. cde.sw.helpbuilder CDE Online Help Builder, 5.3. Online help builder for CDE development environment. cde.sw.hdr CDE Developer Header Files, 5.3. Header files for CDE development environment. cde.sw.lib CDE Developer Static Libraries, 5.3. Static versions of software libraries from cde.sw.dso, for the CDE development environment. CDE Release Notes, 5.3. CDE EOE Books, 5.3. PDF-format books for CDE run-time environment. CDE EOE Online Help, 5.3. Online help pages for CDE run-time environment. CDE EOE Manual Pages, 5.3. Manual pages for CDE run-time environment. CDE Developer Books, 5.3. PDF-format books for CDE development environment. CDE Developer Manual Pages. Manual pages for CDE development environment. CDE Developer Demos, 5.3. Example source code for CDE development environment. 2.2 Common Desktop Environment Subsystem Disk Space Requirements This section lists the subsystems (and their sizes) of Common Desktop Environment. If you are installing this product for the first time, the subsystems marked ``default'' are the ones that are installed if you use the ``go'' menu item. To install a different set of subsystems, use the ``install,'' ``remove,'' ``keep,'' and ``step'' commands in inst to customize the list of subsystems to be installed, then select the ``go'' menu item. Note: The listed subsystem sizes are approximate. Refer to the IRIS Software Installation Guide for information on finding exact sizes. If you install every subsystem, approximately 130 MB of disk space will be required. A default installation requires approximately 50 MB. Subsystem Name Subsystem Size (1 KB blocks) 857 20,179 3,342 26,406 (default) 11,047 (default) 1,345 (default) 33 cde.sw.appbuilder 10,875 cde.sw.client (default) 5 cde.sw.dso (default) 9,815 cde.sw.eoe (default) 23,893 cde.sw.hdr 1,091 cde.sw.helpbuilder 3,101 cde.sw.lib 12,594 cde.sw.tedscape 897 cde.sw.terminfo (default) 2 2.3 Installation Method All of the subsystems for Common Desktop Environment can be installed using IRIX's inst or swmgr. You do not need to use the miniroot. Refer to the IRIS Software Installation Guide for complete installation instructions. Before installation, any previous installation of TED should be removed using the command /usr/dt/admin/deinstall. See the TED Installation Guide for details. 2.4 Prerequisites If you want to install cde.sw.client, you must also install x_eoe.sw.Xoptfonts, x_eoe.sw.eoe, cde.sw.terminfo and tooltalk_eoe.sw.runtime. If you want to install cde.sw.eoe, you must also install cde.sw.client, cde.sw.dso and tooltalk_eoe.sw.runtime. If you want to install cde.sw.tedscape, you must also install cde.sw.eoe and netscape.sw.client. If you want to install cde.sw.hdr, you must also install cde.sw.eoe. If you want to install cde.sw.lib, you must also install cde.sw.hdr. If you want to install cde.sw.helpbuilder, you must also install cde.sw.eoe and If you want to install, you must also install cde.sw.eoe. If you want to install, you must also install cde.sw.hdr. If you want to install cde.sw.appbuilder, you must also install cde.sw.hdr, C compiler and frontend packages. The Application Manager has pre-configured application icons for a number of IRIX/Magic applications, e.g. Insight. These will not work if the appropriate application packages are not installed. 2.5 Configuration Files There are many configuration files in CDE. These are discussed in the Common Desktop Environment: Advanced User's and System Administrator's Guide. 2.6 Other Installation Information 2.6.1 Installing with NFS-mounted /usr/dt It is possible to install CDE so that the bulk of CDE is installed into an NFS-mounted /usr/dt/ directory. In this case the subsystem cde.sw.client needs to be installed on each machine which is mounting the remaining CDE subsystems from an NFS server. After the subsystem is installed, follow section 2.7.2 to enable CDE. 2.6.2 Enabling CDE After installation, CDE needs to be enabled as root. This can be done in either of two ways: 1. Execute the command dtconfig -e. 2. chkconfig dtlogin on and chkconfig xdm off This enables CDE services, and arranges that the CDE login service dtlogin will come up after you next reboot your machine. 2.6.3 Disabling CDE To switch back to using xdm as the login service, run either of the following as root: 1. Execute the command /usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d. 2. chkconfig dtlogin off and chkconfig xdm on This arranges that xdm acts as the login service after the next reboot of your machine. It does NOT disable other CDE services. 2.6.4 Allowing Access to Users without a Password By default, users without a password cannot log in. To disable this facility, remove the keyword passwd required from the following line in /etc/dt/config/pam.conf: dtlogin auth required /usr/dt/lib/security/ passwd_required 2.6.5 Switching to CDE Guidelines for Users of Other Desktops If you have previously used the Indigo Magic Desktop the following points will help ease your transition to using the Common Desktop Environment: + Preferences that you previously set from the Toolchest Menu can now be set from the CDE Style manager. This includes items such as Colors, Fonts, Mouse controls and so forth. + Many of the tools you previously accessed through the Toolchest Menu and the Icon Catalog can now be accessed from the CDE Application Manager. General Guidelines for Previous X Window System Users If you have previously run X11, you must be aware of the following major differences between a standard X11 environment and the SGI CDE. + CDE does not use a startup script (such as $HOME/.xinitrc or $HOME/.x11start). The functionality of the startup script is replaced by the CDE Session Manager. + CDE does not automatically load a user-specific resource file (e.g. $HOME/.Xdefaults). Resources are loaded for a CDE session by the Session Manager. + The $HOME/.profile (or $HOME/.login) file is not explicitly used by CDE. You can request that these files be read (or sourced) in by modifying the $HOME/.dtprofile file. + CDE uses the CDE Window Manager (based on the Motif Window Manager, mwm). + If you have previously run the X Window System, you may have an entry in your $HOME/.profile (or $HOME/.login) file that runs .x11start. You must remove this entry; otherwise, the script may run when you log into the system and request that your .login be sourced. 2.6.6 Moving your Resources into CDE Before you incorporate previous resources into the CDE environment, you should carefully examine them and choose only those features that you want in the new environment. Keep in mind that resources that specify fonts and colours for clients will prevent the CDE Style Manager from customizing those resources. There are two ways to incorporate resources you have already been using into the CDE environment: + Resources to be applied system-wide (for all users) can be placed into /usr/dt/config/C/sys.resources. before any users have run a CDE session. This file is read by the Session Manager the first time a user logs into CDE. However, be aware that this file is not read once the user has run a CDE session and has a $HOME/.dt/sessions/current_or_home/dt.resources file saved by the Session Manager. + Resources to be applied on a per-user basis are best merged into the user's resource database during a CDE session. To merge the resources: a. Copy $HOME/.Xdefaults to a new file. b. Edit the new file to specify the resources you wished passed into the CDE environment. c. Execute the following command from a terminal window running during a session: xrdb -merge -nocpp <filename> where <filename> is the name of the edited file. This merges the resources into the X servers RESOURCE_MANAGER property string. 2.6.7 Environment Variables The login manager has various environment variables built in. It also provides ways to: + Override the built-in values. + Add additional environment variables. Both system-wide and personal variables can be specified. + System-wide variables are placed in: /etc/dt/config/Xconfig + The environment resource is used to set the value of environment resources. For example, the following line specifies a system-wide editor and language: Dtlogin*environment: EDITOR=vi LANG=C + Variables specified on a per-display basis are placed in: /etc/dt/bin/Xsession + User-specific variables are set in $HOME/.dtprofile. The .dtprofile file should contain only variable settings. It should contain neithe shell commands that require terminal I/O nor commands that run in the foreground. To execute the users .login file at the time you log in, the appropriate source command for the user's shell type (sh, csh or ksh) must first be uncommented. The source commands are the last two entries in the $HOME/.dtprofile. 2.6.8 Switching to the dtwm Window Manager This section describes migrating settings from mwm to dtwm. Similar actions are required to switch from 4Dwm to dtwm. If you have been using the mwm window manager, switching to the dtwm window manager involves: + Moving the customizations from the mwm configuration file ($HOME/.mwmrc) into the dtwmrc configuration file ($HOME/.dt/dtwmrc). To do this: a. Copy /usr/dt/config/C/sys.dtwmrc to $HOME/.dt/dtwmrc. Give the new file write permission. b. Copy the customizations you've made in .mwmrc into dtwmrc. c. If necessary, use the following dtwm resources to define the custom button bindings and key bindings you want to use: dtwm*buttonBindings: ButtonBindingsSetName dtwm*keyBindings: KeyBindingsSetName d. If you want to use a different workspace (root) menu, replace the button binding: <Btn1Down> root DtRootMenu <Btn3Down> root DtRootMenu with <Btn1Down> root my_menu_name <Btn3Down> root my_menu_name e. Change any mwm resources to dtwm resources in the resource database. For example, you would need to change the resource. Mwm*keyboardFocusPolicy: pointer to: Dtwm*keyboardFocusPolicy: pointer There are three ways to modify the resource database for the window manager. The way you choose depends on the scope of the change and whether or not the user has already run a CDE session: + To provide system-wide resources, you can edit the file /etc/dt/app-defaults/C/Dtwm Note, however, that this file could be replaced by future CDE updates. + The file /etc/dt/config/C/sys.resources is read by the Session Manager the first time a user logs into CDE. Thus, you can place system-wide resources there. However, be aware that this file is not read once the user has run a CDE session and has a resource database saved by the session manager. + Once the user has run a CDE session, user-specific resources are added directly to the RESOURCE_MANAGER property string. See "Moving your Resources to the CDE Environment" earlier. To replace your X11 startup script for CDE sessions: + Log into a CDE session. + Use a terminal emulator to start the applications that were previously started from your X11 startup script. Do not start a window manager (the CDE window manager will already be running). + You now have two choices: a. You can proceed with your session, opening and closing applications as necessary. your next session will start the applications running at the end of your previous session. This is the default behaviour. b. You can save and use the same session each time you log in.
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Changes and Additions 3. Changes and Additions The following changes have been made to SGI CDE 5.3.5 since CDE 5.3: 1. CDE dtfile dumps core renaming a file with non 7-bit ascii chars 2. CDE's dtfile slow at opening dirs with large files The following changes have been made to SGI CDE 5.3.4 since CDE 5.3: 1. Numerous Security flaws fixed: Numerous CDE security bug fixes have been made since CDE 5.3 was released. The following changes have been made to SGI CDE 5.3 since CDE 5.2: 1. Removal of tooltalk: CDE now uses Irix Tooltalk rather than providing its own version, thus reducing incompatibilities. The following changes have been made to SGI CDE 5.0 since TED 4.4.1: 1. Installation format: Installation is performed through inst (miniroot and terminal) or swmgr using standard SGI product distribution format. This enables better management of installation versions. 2. Developer tools: Application Builder (dtbuilder) and online help builder (dthelptag) are added. 3. Rebadging: The product is now known as SGI Common Desktop Environment (CDE) rather than TriTeal Enterprise Desktop (TED), and is maintained directly by SGI. 4. Licensing: There is no longer any runtime licensing required. 5. Log in without a password: Users without a password can login only if passwd required is not set in pam.conf.
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Bug Fixes 4. Bug Fixes + Fixed security vulnerability in libDtHelp.
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Known Problems and Workarounds 5. Known Problems and Workarounds + In Application Manager, dragging the "..(go up)" icon to the desktop creates an icon incorrectly labelled "C". + There is no CDE window manager menu option to Close windows of some programs, e.g. swmgr. The workaround is to use the application's own menu to exit/close. + dtterm cannot cut and paste text into a terminal running a vi session. + Some screen lock modes don't work and can crash IMPACT family graphics. + Wrong idle time for port "tpo" in utmp. + Numeric keypad cannot be used in dtcalc. + In xwsh pixels chopped off for some fonts. + Dragging a folder to the trashcan generates an error. + Display problem of the financial register displays in dtcalc. + Including a file in CDE text editor that you don't have write permissions to locks the editor into read-only mode. + Using CDE file manager to copy files you don't own retains original file ownership. + Cannot control the monitor "turn off" time that's settable via xset through the screen saver control panel. + An infinite number of Help on Help windows can be invoked. + Users with expired password can still log in when system is not using shadow files.
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Documentation Errors 6. Documentation Errors 6.1 Errata to TED User's Guide 6.1.1 Printing + When you want to print a file, if you mistakenly enter the name of a printer that does not exist, the default printer is selected instead. + When cancelling a print job after finding it in the Print Manager, a confirmation dialog box appears after you click Cancel Print Jobs. 6.1.2 Mailer The Mail Options Message View category has an option that lets you specify the Character Width. This option affects the character width for the Compose and Edit windows only, not the Message View window, which has a default character width of 80 characters. 6.1.3 Window Manager + The dtterm Window Size option on the Option menu is unrelated to the 132 Column Switching option on the Terminal Options Panel. You can always change your window size when using dtterm, even if the 132 Column Switching option is disabled. The 132 Column Switching option is related to applications you run from dtterm. If the 132 Column Switching option is enabled and you run an application from within dtterm that requires 132 columns, the dtterm window will automatically resize. If the option is disabled, dtterm will not automatically resize. + A new feature has been added that reserves the location of minimized applications. For example, if you minimize a client for the first time, the position of its icon will remain in the same location, even if you open and minimize other clients. 6.1.4 Calendar Manager If you want to set up an appointment in the Calendar Manager, and use the Mail To option to notify others of the appointment, you are limited to 9 mail addresses in the Mail To field. 6.2 Errata to TED Enhancements The TED Enhancements book makes reference to TriTeal and TED 4.4. Any references to TED should be read as CDE, and Triteal as SGI. This book mentions some TED components which are not available with SGI CDE: TEDSECURE, WINTED, NTED, TEDFS, TEDeXtend, TEDVISION, LocalTED. The part number on the front page should read 860-0204-001. Specific errata follow. 6.2.1 Resources + The following resource has been added to the .mailrc file: set rfsiotimeout=60 This resource can be used to set timeout processing to check for NFS hangs. The timeout value is in seconds. If a timeout is detected, you will be notified of a potential problem, but the NFS operation will not hang. If the timeout is enabled, make sure the timeout value is set to a number of seconds that is larger than the worst case read/write/open time (that is, consider large mailboxes on a congested network), or you may see the warning dialog even when there is no problem. + The following resource has been added to the .mailrc file: set createmode=0664 Prior to the addition of this resource, dtmail used hard-coded defaults to determine the permissions for saving mail messages and attachments. This new resource lets you set the permissions yourself. For example, if you put the line set createmode=666 in the .mailrc file, then mail messages and attachments will get saved with read/write access for owner, group and other. Using this resource, you can specify additional permissions, but you can not restrict the permissions to make them less than the hard-coded defaults. 6.3 Errata to Advanced User's and System Administrator's Guide + If you want to change the message text displayed by dthello, you can create an executable sh or ksh script in /etc/dt/config/Xsession.d. Any files you create in this directory must be executable, or they will not be read, and the changes you made will not take effect. + If you want to use Create Action to work with icons that reside in $HOME/.dt/icons, you must be sure to have icons of tiny, medium, and large sizes, with the extensions filename., filename., and filename. If the icons do not have the correct size and extensions, they will not be visible in Create Action. + The Advanced User's and System Administrator's Guide states that changes to resources in $HOME/.Xdefaults can be activated by running the Reload Resources action. This may not work if the resource is also set in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property with xrdb, which takes precedence. The preferred method for changing resources is to use the xrdb program. Those resource changes are automatically saved in $HOME/.dt/sessions/home/dt.resources when you log out. + The instructions for changing the default terminal emulator on page 49 of The Advanced User's and System Administrator's Guide are incorrect. Instead, you should copy the dtwm.fp file into your personal types directory ($HOME/.dt/types), and modify the Term control's PUSH_ACTION field to be the new action you create. After making the changes, you must Reload Actions and Restart your Workspace for the changes to take effect. 6.4 Features Specific to SGI CDE 5.3 The following section documents functionality which is specific to SGI CDE, but not included in the CDE books. 6.4.1 The CDE Application Manager for IRIX The Application Manager contains the following folders with SGI-specific content: Information Folder The Information folder contains the IRIS InSight Online Documentation (Book) Viewer for the IRIX platform. The Information folder contains icons for: + Insight + README + Release Notes + SGI URL link The InSight Viewer is an online information retrieval system. The viewer provides an easy-to-use interface that allows users to search and browse through online information that is distributed from Silicon Graphics. Note this does not contain the CDE books. Magic Folder The Application Manager contains the Magic folder. After you open the Magic folder, you can see all the tools available for the IRIX platform. The tools included are: + Audio Panel + Capture + CDman + Comp View + DATman + IconBook + Image Copy + Image Info + Image View + Image Works + Movie Convert + Movie Maker + Movie Player + Sound Editor + Sound Filer + Sound Player + Toolchest + Video Panel System Admin Folder The System_Admin folder contains numerous icons that invoke IRIX administrative functions. These include the following: + Disk Manager + NFS Mount Manager + Printer Manager + Software Manager + System Log + System Manager + User Manager 6.4.2 Changing Login Configuration between TED and SGI Magic If you change your configuration as described below, you will not be able to log out using the root menu. You will have to exit by logging out of the xterm with the name login. To change your configuration to log in to either TED or Magic 1. Change the last line in the following files: + /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession + /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession.dt from exec /usr/bin/X11/reaper to the following: exec /usr/bin/X11/xterm -T login 2. Add the following entries to your /etc/dt/config/C/Xresources file: Dtlogin*altDts: 2 !! Dtlogin*altDtName1: TED Desktop Dtlogin*altDtKey1: /usr/dt/bin/dtwm Dtlogin*altDtStart1: /usr/dt/bin/Xsession Dtlogin*altDtLogo1: /usr/dt/appconfig/icons/C/ !! Dtlogin*altDtName2: Magic Dtlogin*altDtKey2: /usr/bin/X11/4Dwm Dtlogin*altDtStart2: /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession Dtlogin*altDtLogo2: /usr/dt/appconfig/icons/C/ 6.4.3 Configuration for Multi-display Systems To configure a multi-display system to properly initialize the Xservers, the general process is to create the Xservers file is to copy the contents of /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers to the /etc/dt/config directory and then modify it to fit the dtlogin syntax; for example: /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers: :0 secure /usr/bin/X11/X -bs -nobitscale -c -pseudomap 4sight -solidroot sgilightblue -cursorFG red -cursorBG white /etc/dt/config/Xservers: :0 Local local@none /usr/bin/X11/X -bs -nobitscale -c -pseudomap 4sight -solidroot sgilightblue -cursorFG red -cursorBG white You can see the the "secure" field is replaced by "Local local@none".
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