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FLIGHT(6D)

 NAME

     flight, dog, shadow - simulate the flight of any of several aircraft

 SYNOPSIS

     flight [ -h ] [ -O ]

     dog [ -h ] [ -O ] [ -i infile ] [ -o outfile ] [ -b ] [ -I ifaddr ] [ -T
     ttl ]

     shadow [ -i infile]

 DESCRIPTION

     Flight is an interactive flight simulator.  One large viewport shows the
     world; several smaller ones simulate instruments.  The world is shown
     from the cockpit of an aircraft or from a control tower.  The mouse and
     keyboard control the aircraft and its environment.

     If the -h option is selected a "heads-up" display is used instead of the
     instrument panel. This kind of display is commonly used in the military.
     It allows for a larger view, which results in a slower update rate.  The
     -O option causes the old 2D style instrument panel to be used.

     Dog is a multi-player version of flight that allows players on two or
     more networked IRISes to battle each other in a ``dogfight.''  Several
     times a second, each workstation sends status/location packets to the
     other machines using UDP multicast packets, and receives the other
     planes' packets.  All known planes in the current field of view are
     displayed on all systems.  Pilots may cooperate by attempting formation
     aerobatics or compete by trying to shoot each other down.  The coordi-
     nates of projectiles are included in the packets, hits are detected, and
     scoring is maintained.

     If either -i nor -o is selected, the status/location packets are read
     and/or written to files as described later under Airshow Option. Other-
     wise, the broadcast medium is the Ethernet.  Older versions of dog on the
     IRIS 3000 series and IRIS-4D IRIX releases before 3.3 use broadcast pack-
     ets.  To have a dogfight with those systems, start the program with the
     -b option.  (Note: using dog in broadcast packet mode may be harmful to
     other computers on the same network. Try to use the default multicast
     mode if possible.)  Players on several networks can fight each other if
     the network gateways are configured to route multicast packets.  See the
     IRIX Network Administration Guide and mrouted(1M) for details on setting
     up gateways and multicast routing on IRIS-4D machines.  The -T option
     specifies the maximum number of times the multicast packets can be for-
     warded between networks.  For machines with multiple network interfaces,
     the -I option specifies the outgoing interface by its Internet hostname
     or address.

     Shadow allows passive observation of the dog environment.  The shadow
     operator sees a full-screen view of the world from a selected aircraft or
     of a selected aircraft from the control tower.

 Starting Up

     Flight provides two pages of help information.  The first help page
     briefly describes the program.  To freeze the action at any time and
     display the first page, type h.  Read the first page and press any key to
     continue.  The second page offers descriptions of five or more aircraft:
     one two-place trainer (Cessna 150), one heavy transport (Boeing 747), and
     at least three fighters.

     Type 1 to select the Cessna 150.  The view you see is from the cockpit of
     the Cessna.  Type d to see the Cessna from the control tower.  Type x a
     few times for a closer view.  Type d to return to the cockpit and strike
     s three or four times to advance the throttle.  The aircraft will start
     to taxi towards the runway.  Type F twice to raise the flaps - Cessnas
     normally take off that way.  When the plane is almost on the runway, tap
     the right mouse button five or six times to apply right rudder.  The
     plane will start to turn right.  The left mouse button moves the rudder
     one increment to the left; the center one sets the rudder to zero.  Move
     the mouse till the cursor is centered on the bottom edge of the
     windshield and tap s until the thrust indicator shows full thrust.  When
     the airspeed indicator passes 50 knots, move the mouse smoothly toward
     you. The cursor should be in the upper center of the horizon indicator.
     When the rate-of-climb indicator shows positive climb, you are flying!
     Congratulations!

     Now turn around and land.

 Flight Controls

     Flight is controlled by the mouse, the mouse buttons, and the keyboard.
     The mouse holds the primary flight controls.

     Rightmouse and leftmouse move the rudder one increment to the right and
     left, respectively.  middlemouse centers it.  The rudder position is
     shown by a small red triangle at the lower edge of the artificial hor-
     izon.  The rudder is used primarily to maneuver the aircraft on the
     ground.  Airborne turns are made, as in real aircraft, by coordinated ap-
     plication of aileron and elevator.

     The mouse X and Y valuators control the ailerons and elevator, emulating
     a control stick.  Left-right motion controls roll; forward-back motion
     controls pitch.  The stick position is indicated by a square cursor.
     Both controls are at their neutral position when the cursor is centered
     at the bottom of the windshield.  Stick position for level flight is
     slightly below center.

     The s key increases the throttle setting; the a key decreases it.  Thrust
     goes to zero when the plane climbs through 50,000 feet and the engine
     flames out.  It can be restored by descending and applying throttle.
     Thrust also goes to zero when fuel goes to zero.  Fuel can be restored
     only by making a safe landing.

     Secondary flight controls include the landing gear, flaps, and spoilers.
     To raise or lower the landing gear, type l.  To increase or decrease the
     flaps, type f or F.  To increase or decrease the spoilers, type c or C.
     Flap and spoiler ranges are determined by the aircraft.  The Cessna has
     no spoilers and its gear is down and welded.

     The landing gear has two functions: to protect the fuselage from the
     ground and to add drag.  You may lower the gear to slow the plane down
     and make handling easier.

     Flaps and gear are structurally unsound at high speeds.  They fall off if
     you exceed approximately 400 knots while they are deployed.  Missing
     flaps make good landings difficult.  Missing gear makes a good landing
     impossible.

     Flaps increase lift, increase drag, and decrease stall speed.  Takeoffs
     are normally made with partial flaps; landings are made with full flaps.

     Spoilers decrease lift and increase drag dramatically.  They are most
     useful in dissipating excess altitude without increasing speed.  While
     spoilers are deployed, it is difficult to recover from a stall.

 Display Controls

     Several controls allow the viewer to alter his view of the world.

     The left-arrow and right-arrow keys rotate the pilot's point of view 5
     degrees to the left or right respectively.  The viewing angle is
     displayed on the windshield.  The up-arrow and down-arrow keys can be
     used to quickly set the view to front or rear respectively.  The keys are
     useful for looking around, but remember to set the view back to the front
     for any but the simplest flying.

     The d key switches the viewpoint from the cockpit to the control tower or
     back.  The control tower always looks toward the plane.  The x key de-
     creases the tower's field of view, effectively magnifying the aircraft.
     The z key increases the field of view.  If there is doubt as to whether
     the view observed is from the cockpit or the tower, observe the center of
     the window: an orange cross marks the cockpit view.

     The W key switches the viewpoint to that of an imaginary wingman.  The x
     key moves the view toward your aircraft.  The z key moves the view away
     from your aircraft.

     The n key changes the time of day from daylight to night or back.  There
     is an interesting city visible at night NNW of the airport.

     The m key switches the viewpoint from the cockpit to just above and
     behind your missile or back.  The view automatically switches to the
     cockpit after the missile explodes.  If you don't have a missile in the
     air, this key has no effect.  Missile view is not available on the
     GT/GTX/VGX version.

 PI/G Version Instruments

     This section describes the instruments on the panel from left to right.
     In the bar indicators, blue denotes a positive value and red a negative
     value.

     The thrust indicator shows thrust as a percentage of full throttle.  Re-
     verse thrust is possible only on the ground and is used for braking.

     The airspeed indicator is calibrated from 0 to 1000 knots.  (100 knots is
     about 118 miles per hour.)  Negative airspeeds can happen during such
     acrobatic maneuvers as hammerhead stalls.  The numeric display at the
     bottom of the band displays the exact speed.

     The climb indicator shows rate of climb in feet per minute.  Note that
     the fighters (in normal operation) and the civil planes (usually while
     crashing) can exceed the 10,000 fpm maximum rate displayed.  The numeric
     display at the bottom of the band displays the exact climb rate.

     The G-meter indicates vertical acceleration.  Each aircraft has maximum
     stress limits. If they are exceeded, the attitude indicator shows the
     message ``G-LIMIT.''

     The artificial horizon helps orient the plane when the real horizon is
     not visible.  The triangular indicator at the bottom edge shows the
     rudder position.  If the maximum angle of attack is exceeded, a ``WING-
     STALL'' message is displayed and a warning bell sounds.  The more severe
     the wing stall, the less control you have over your plane.  Very severe
     stalls may throw your plane into a violent spin.

     The heading meter displays a combination compass and radar screen.  The
     compass rotates and indicates your heading.  Your plane's location is al-
     ways at the center of the radar screen. The radar screen shows the posi-
     tions of the runway and planes that are within a few miles of your air-
     craft.  The blue line indicates the position of the runway. In dog(6D),
     other planes are shown on the heading meter as red blobs if they are
     above you or green blobs if they are below you.

     The fuel gauge shows remaining fuel as a percentage of a full tank.  To
     reduce fuel consumption to zero (for tests only) type ~.  Note that this
     forfeits all your missiles and is considered cheating.

 GT/GTX/VGX Version Instruments

     The GT/GTX/VGX version of flight now support a three dimensional analog
     instrument panel.

     The thrust indicator shows thrust and throttle as a percentage of full.
     Reverse thrust is indicated by the REV light and is possible only on the
     ground and is used for braking.

     The airspeed indicator is calibrated from 0 to 700 knots.  (100 knots is
     about 118 miles per hour.)  Negative airspeeds can happen during such
     acrobatic maneuvers as hammerhead stalls. Since wind is not simulated,
     airspeed = groundspeed.

     The mach meter is used to show speeds greater then 700 knots.

     The climb indicator shows rate of climb in feet per minute.  It has a
     range of -6000 to 6000 fpm.

     The G-meter indicates vertical acceleration.  Each aircraft has maximum
     stress limits. If they are exceeded, the the G-LIMIT warning light will
     come on.

     The WING STALL warning light comes on if the maximum angle of attack is
     exceeded The more severe the wing stall, the less control you have over
     your plane.  Very severe stalls may throw your plane into a violent spin.

     The artificial horizon helps orient the plane when the real horizon is
     not visible.

     The heading meter displays a combination compass and radar screen.  The
     compass rotates and indicates your heading.  Your plane's location is al-
     ways at the center of the radar screen. The radar screen shows the posi-
     tions of the runway and planes that are within a few miles of your air-
     craft.  The blue line indicates the position of the runway. In dog, other
     planes are shown on the heading meter as red blobs if they are above you
     or green blobs if they are below you.

     The fuel gauge shows remaining fuel in pounds.  When fuel is below 10
     percent the fuel warning light will come on.  To reduce fuel consumption
     to zero (for tests only) type ~.  Note that this forfeits all your mis-
     siles and is considered cheating.

     The landing gear indicator show the current state of your landing gear.
     Green indicates that your gear is down and locked.  Yellow and black
     stripes indicate that your gear are up and locked.  Red is shown when
     your landing gear is retracting or extending.  Red is also shown if your
     gear has been ripped off or otherwise damaged.

     The stores indicator shows your current load of sidewinders and rockets.

     The flaps/spoilers meter shows the percentage of flaps and spoilers
     currently deployed.

 Landings and Crashes

     A good landing is a landing on the runway, with gear down, a descent rate
     of less than 600 fpm, and wings level.  Good landings are rewarded with
     scores from 0 to 100 points.  Points are subtracted from a perfect score
     of 100 based on touchdown location, descent rate, roll, heading, and
     drift.  For every point scored, fuel on board is increased by 1% of total
     capacity until your tank is full.  For every ten points scored you re-
     ceive a missile up to the plane's limit.

     Landings with the gear up, descent rate, roll, or drift too high, but not
     disastrous, count as crash landings.  You can keep flying, but get no
     more fuel nor ordnance.

     Landings off the runway are ``crashed into the swamps'' landings.  Land-
     ings with excessive descent rate, roll, or drift are ``EXPLODED ON IM-
     PACT'' landings.  In either case, all you can do is look at the wreckage
     from the tower or restart the game.

 Restarts

     Your plane is destroyed if it crashes, taxis too far off the runway,
     raises the gear while on the ground, or is shot down.  After your plane
     is destroyed, r, R, u, or U reincarnates your plane and restarts the game
     at the second help page.  You then choose which type of plane you want to
     fly.  These different restart options are included to make it easier to
     restart in intense dog combat.  Without them, some pilots simply hang
     around the runway and blast new planes as they appear.

     The r key restarts you at the original starting location.  The R key res-
     tarts you at the south end of the runway.  The u key reincarnates your
     aircraft at a random location in the sky with some randomly low airspeed
     and full throttle.  The U key is similar but starts your plane at a fixed
     location beyond the hills.

 Weight

     Flight models aircraft weight accurately.  Ordnance and fuel have sub-
     stantial weight. As you fire weapons and burn fuel, your plane becomes
     lighter and more maneuverable.

 Weapons

     Fighters are armed with rockets, sidewinders, and cannon.  The number of
     rockets and sidewinders available on each type of fighter are indicated
     on the help display. Landings replenish missiles as well as fuel.  The
     number of missiles replenished depends on the quality of the landing.
     Ammunition for the cannon is inexhaustible.

     Each weapon has a different kill radius. Weapons detonate themselves when
     they are within their kill radius of a plane other than the one they came
     from.  All planes within the kill radius of an exploding weapon are des-
     troyed.

     The q key fires a rocket.  Rockets have about ten seconds of fuel and
     follow ballistic paths after the fuel is exhausted.  They explode when
     they strike the ground, come within range of an aircraft (except the one
     they came from), or are destroyed by their owner.  Rockets have the larg-
     est kill radius of all the weapons.

     The w key fires a sidewinder.  Sidewinders are like rockets but track, or
     steer themselves towards, other aircraft if they are ``locked on''.
     Sidewinders are locked on if they are fired while a target aircraft is in
     the orange tracking rectangle or if locked on with the t key.  The t key
     identifies the target and locks a sidewinder onto the target for one
     second without firing the weapon.  This is useful for identifying other
     planes as friend or foe. Sidewinders will not lock on aircraft lower than
     150 feet, but once they are locked on, they will track a plane below 150
     feet.  Sidewinders stop tracking and follow ballistic paths when they run
     out of fuel. The Cessna 150 does not generate enough heat to attract
     sidewinders.  A good pilot can usually outmaneuver a sidewinder unless
     his plane is traveling slowly with a heavy load.  Sidewinders have a
     smaller kill radius than rockets.

     The e key fires a cannon round.  The cannon has a limited range-each can-
     non shell exists for only one second. Cannons have the smallest kill ra-
     dius.

     The r key destroys the current missile.  Any aircraft in range of the ex-
     plosion is destroyed. Each aircraft can have only one projectile in the
     air at a time.  Missiles may take a long time to fall back to the ground
     after they have run out of fuel.  It is therefore wise to destroy mis-
     siles that are out of fuel, allowing new ones to be fired.  In flight, or
     in dog with no competition, strafing the airport can be good practice for
     the real thing.

     The O key toggles target box mode on and off.  In target box mode, each
     enemy plane and missile is surrounded by a small yellow square.  Target
     boxes are only visible in the forward view from the cockpit.  Target box
     mode defaults off because it is considered cheating.  This mode is not
     available on the GT/GTX/VGX version

 Scoring

     dog keeps track of victories and defeats.  A pilot scores a ``won'' when
     a projectile fired by his plane destroys another aircraft.  A pilot
     scores a ``lost'' when his aircraft is destroyed by a projectile or
     crashes.

     Each pilot's score is displayed on his instrument panel.  The scores of
     all the current players are shown to each new player when he joins the
     game and when he reincarnates himself after destruction.

     When a player joins the game, an announcement is broadcast to all
     players.  Messages are also broadcast whenever a player quits, destroys
     another plane, or is destroyed.

 Airshow Option

     The -o option will record the path of your aircraft on outfile rather
     than broadcasting it to the network.

     The -i option replays a recorded flight.  You will be in another air-
     craft, able to join the other recorded planes in formation or shoot at,
     but not really destroy them (your missile will explode, but the other
     plane will continue flying).

     Specifying both the -i and -o options replays a recorded flight and pro-
     duces an outfile containing your aircraft's path as well as the other
     planes' paths.  infile and outfile cannot be the same file.  Repeated use
     of the command can make formations of many aircraft.

 Time

     In the GT/GTX/VGX version the time of day is set according to when flight
     is started up.  As the real time changes so does the position of the sun.
     The n key adds five minutes to the time of day.  The N key subtracts five
     minutes from the time of day.

 Sound

     Flight plays sound effects on machines capable of Indigo quality sound.
     Currently, this includes the Indigo and the 4D/3x with the audio option.
     The S key switches between three sound modes.  By default, all sound ef-
     fects are played.  Pressing S once causes all sound effects except thrust
     to play.  Pressing a second time turns off all sound effects. Pressing S
     a third time turns on all the sounds again.

     By setting the environment variable FLIGHTSOUND to a path with sound ef-
     fect files, a user can override the default sounds.  The following list
     gives the filename and description of each sound effect.  Each file
     should be an AIFF file with the sample data in a SSND chunk.  The data
     should be two channel, 16 bit wide, 16 kHz sound samples.  No warnings
     are given for missing or corrupt files.

     cannon.aiff         cannon fire
     die.aiff       your plane exploding
     explosion.aiff      any other explosions
     jthrust.aiff        jet engine maximum thrust
     lock.aiff      locked on
     missle.aiff         missile being fired

 AUTHORS and CREDITS

     Original version by Gary Tarolli.
     Current version by Rob Mace.
     Contributors Barry Brouillette and Marshal Levine
     Network communications Dave "ciemo" Ciemiewicz and Andrew Cherenson.
     New instrument panel by Marshal Levine and Rob Mace.
     F16 and P38 geometry by Barry Brouillette.
     F14 geometry by Rob Mace.
     F18 geometry by Thad Beier and Rob Mace
     727 geometry by Marc Ondrechen and Rob Mace
     Software Systems' Multigen was used to create instrument panel plates and
     to enhance several aircraft models.
     Sound effects by Chris Perry and Chris Schoeneman

 FILES

     /usr/demos/General_Demos/flight/data/sounds       sound files

 BUGS

     Flight and its offspring are continually being improved.  Improvements
     may be documented in the program's help display before this document is
     updated.

     The Cessna is too difficult to bring out of a stall.

     In the GT/GTX/VGX version, the F15 looks like a F14 with the wings swept
     back.

     The G/PI version only supports the old instrument panel currently.

     F14 and 727 are available only in the GT/GTX/VGX version.

     Collision detection is not done with the buildings.  This was done on
     purpose because it is fun to fly through them.

     The cannon ammunition should be finite and the cannon should overheat and
     jam if used too often.

     There is no propeller engine thrust sound.

     Many other sounds should be added and existing sounds improved.




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