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IRIX Admin: Disks and Filesystems
(document number: 007-2825-013 / published: 2005-08-06)    table of contents  |  additional info  |  download
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Chapter 2. Performing Disk Administration Procedures

This chapter describes administration procedures for disks and their device files.

The major sections in this chapter are:

Administration procedures for filesystems and XLV logical volumes are described in later chapters of this guide.

Listing the Disks on a System With hinv

You can list the disks connected to a system by issuing this hinv command from IRIX:

# hinv -c disk 

The output lists the disk controllers and disks present on a system, for example:

Integral SCSI controller 0: Version WD33C93B, revision D
  Disk drive: unit 2 on SCSI controller 0
  Disk drive: unit 1 on SCSI controller 0

This output shows a single integral SCSI controller whose number is 0 and two disk drives. These disks are at drive addresses 1 and 2. In hinv output, drive addresses are called units. They are also sometimes called unit numbers. Each disk is uniquely identified by the combination of its controller number and drive address.

If you are in the PROM Monitor, you can also give the hinv command from the Command Monitor:

>> hinv 

Output for SCSI disks looks like this:

SCSI Disk: scsi(0)disk(1)
SCSI Disk: scsi(0)disk(2)

In this output, the controller number is the “scsi” number and the drive address is the “disk” number. The type of controller is not listed. As a rule, workstations have integral controllers and servers may have integral SCSI controllers or non-integral controllers that are SCSI or VME. On some Challenge systems, the output of hinv in the PROM monitor shows only disks on the boot IOP (I/O processor).

The controller number and drive addresses of disks are specified, using a variety of syntax, as arguments to the IRIX disk and filesystem commands, such as fx, prtvtoc, dvhtool, and mkfs. For example, for a disk on controller 0 at drive address 1:

  • To specify the disk on an fx command line, the command line is:

    # fx "dksc(0,1)" 
    

  • To specify the disk (actually, its volume header) on a prtvtoc command line, either of these two commands can be used:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh 
    # prtvtoc dks0d1vh 
    

  • To specify the disk 1 (actually, its volume header) on a dvhtool command line, the command is:

    # dvhtool /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh 
    

  • To specify partition 7 of the second disk above on a mkfs command line for an XFS filesystem, the command is:

    # mkfs /dev/rdsk/dks0d1s7 
    


    Tip: You can use the Disk Manager in the System Toolchest to get information about the disks on a system. For instructions, see the section “Disk Manager” in Chapter 3 of the Personal System Administration Guide.


Formatting and Initializing a Disk With fx

When you format a disk, you write timing marks and divide the disk into tracks and sectors that can be addressed by the disk controller. SCSI disks are shipped preformatted; formatting a SCSI disk is rarely required. Formatting is done by fx; see the fx(1M) reference page for details.


Caution: Formatting a disk results in the loss of all data on the disk. It is recommended only for experienced IRIX system administrators.

Formatting a disk destroys information about bad areas on the disk (called bad blocks). Identifying and handling bad blocks is also done by fx; see the fx(1M) reference page for details.


Caution: Using fx for bad block handling usually results in the loss of all data on the block. It is recommended only for experienced IRIX system administrators.

Initializing a disk consists of creating a volume header for a disk. Disks supplied by Silicon Graphics are shipped with a volume header, so initialization is not necessary. Disks from third-party vendors or disks whose volume headers have been destroyed must be initialized to create a volume header. Initializing disks is done by fx. No explicit commands are necessary; fx automatically detects if no volume header is present and creates one. (See “Repartitioning a Disk With fx” for information on invoking fx.) When fx creates a volume header, a prompt asks if you want to write the volume header; reply yes.


Tip: You can use the Disk Information window of the Disk Manager in the System Toolchest to perform disk initialization and other tasks. For more information, see the section “Managing Disk Drives” in Chapter 3 of the Personal System Administration Guide.


Adding Files to the Volume Header With dvhtool

As explained in “Volume Headers” in Chapter 1, the volume header of system disks must contain a copy of the program sash. The procedure in this section explains how to put sash or other programs into a volume header. Before performing this procedure, review the discussion of dvhtool in “Volume Headers” in Chapter 1.

When you add programs to the volume header of a disk, there are two sources for those programs. One is the /stand directory of the system and the other is the /stand directory on an IRIX software release CD. The /stand directory on a CD (usually /CDROM/stand after the CD is mounted) contains copies of sash, fx, and ide that are processor-specific.

As superuser, perform this procedure to add programs to a volume header:

  1. Invoke dvhtool with the raw device name of the volume header of the disk as an argument; for example:

    # dvhtool /dev/rdsk/dks0d2vh 
    

    (See the “Device Names” in Chapter 1 for information on constructing the device name.)

  2. Display the volume directory portion of the volume header by using the vd (volume directory) and l (list) commands:

    Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): vd
    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            l
    
    Current contents:
            File name        Length     Block #
            sgilabel            512           2
            sash             159232           3
    

  3. For each program that you want to copy to the volume header, use the a (add) command. For example, to copy sash from the /stand directory to sash in the volume header, use this command:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            a /stand/sash sash
    

    As another example, to copy sash from a CD to an IP20 or IP22 system (an Indy™), use this command:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            a /CDROM/stand/sashARCS sash
    

    CDs contain multiple processor-specific versions of sash; Table 1-3 lists the version of sash for each processor type.

  4. Confirm your changes by listing the contents of the volume with the l (list) command:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            l
    
    Current contents:
            File name        Length     Block #
            sgilabel            512           2
            sash             159232           3
    

  5. Make the changes permanent by writing the changes to the volume header using the quit command to exit this “submenu” and the write command:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            quit
    
    Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): write
    Quit dvhtool by giving the quit command:
    Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): quit
    

Removing Files in the Volume Header With dvhtool


Caution: The procedure in this section can result in the loss of data if it is not performed properly. It is recommended only for experienced IRIX system administrators.

You can use the following procedure to remove XLV logical volume labels (for example xlvlab) and files (for example, sash) from the volume header of a disk. Before performing this procedure, review the discussion of dvhtool in “Volume Headers” in Chapter 1.

  1. Using hinv, determine the controller and drive addresses of the disk that has the volume header you want to change. In this procedure, the example commands and output assume that the disk is on controller 0, drive address 2. Substitute the controller and drive addresses of your disk.

  2. As superuser, invoke dvhtool with the raw device name of the volume header of the disk, for example:

    # dvhtool /dev/rdsk/dks0d2vh 
    

    (See the section “Device Names” in Chapter 1 for information on constructing the device name.)

  3. Display the volume directory portion of the volume header by answering two prompts:

    Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): vd
    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            l
    
    Current contents:
            File name        Length     Block #
            sgilabel            512           2
            xlvlab            10752           3
            lvlab2              512          26
    

  4. Use the d command to delete the file; for example, xlvlab:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            d xlvlab
    

  5. To delete additional files, continue to use the d command, for example:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            d lvlab2
    

  6. List the volume directory again to confirm that the files are gone:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            l
    
    Current contents:
            File name        Length     Block #
            sgilabel            512           2
    

  7. Exit this “menu” and write the changes to the volume header:

    (d FILE, a UNIX_FILE FILE, c UNIX_FILE FILE, g FILE UNIX_FILE or l)?
            q
    
    Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): write
    

  8. Quit dvhtool:

    Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): quit
    

Displaying a Disk's Partitions With prtvtoc

Use the prtvtoc command to get information about the size and partitions of a disk. Only the superuser can use this command. The command is

# prtvtoc device 

where device is optional. When it is omitted, prtvtoc displays information for the system disk. device is the raw device name of the disk volume header. The /dev/rdsk portion of the device name can be omitted if desired. For example, for a SCSI disk that is drive address 1 on controller 0, device is dks0d1vh. (See “Device Names” in Chapter 1 for more information on device names.)

An example of the output of prtvtoc is:

Printing label for root disk

* /dev/root (bootfile “/unix”)
*     512 bytes/sector
Partition  Type  Fs   Start: sec    Size: sec   Mount Directory
 0          xfs  yes        4096      4138249  
 1          raw          4142345       262144  
 8       volhdr                0         4096  
10       volume                0      4404489  

The output lists the partitions, their type (name or filesystem type), whether they contain a filesystem, their location on the disk (start and size in blocks and cylinders), and mount directory for filesystems. The partitions in this output are shown graphically in Figure 1-6.

Repartitioning a Disk With xdkm

Disks can be repartitioned using the graphical user interface of the xdkm command. Information about xdkm is available from its online help.

Repartitioning a Disk With fx


Caution: The procedure in this section can result in the loss of data if it is not performed properly. It is recommended only for experienced IRIX system administrators.

Repartitioning disks is done from the command line with the fx command. There are two versions of this program, a standalone version and an IRIX version. The standalone version is invoked from the Command Monitor, which enables you to repartition the system disk. Option disks can be repartitioned using the IRIX version.

The subsections that follow describe the procedures for repartitioning a disk. Start with the first subsection, “Before Repartitioning.” Then proceed to the appropriate subsection on invoking fx:

The standard partition layouts described in System Disks, Option Disks, and Partition Layouts” in Chapter 1 are “built in to” fx. You can partition a disk using one of the standard layouts or you can create custom partition layouts. Two subsections describe how to create standard and custom partition layouts:

The final subsection, “After Repartitioning”, describes how to proceed after the repartitioning is complete.

Before Repartitioning


Caution: Repartitioning a disk makes the data on the disk inaccessible (you must repartition back to the original partitions to get to it).

Before repartitioning a disk, back up any files that contain valuable data. If the disk is a system disk and you plan to copy the files from the backup to the disk after repartitioning, you must use either the System Manager or the backup command. Only backups made with backup or the System Manager will be available to the system from the System Recovery menu of the System Maintenance menu. The System Manager is the preferred method of the two and is described completely in the Personal System Administration Guide. Other commands require a full system installation to operate correctly.

Invoking fx From the Command Monitor

The procedure in this section describes how to invoke the standalone version of fx from the Command Monitor. It is only necessary for the system disk. You can use the IRIX version of fx for other disks (see, “Invoking fx From IRIX”).

  1. Shut the system down into the System Maintenance menu.

  2. Bring up the Command Monitor by choosing the fifth item on the System Maintenance menu.

  3. Identify the copy of fx that you will boot. Some possible locations are: fx in the /stand directory of the system disk or fx on an IRIX software distribution CD in a CD-ROM drive on the local system or on a remote system.

    A single copy of fx is in the /stand directory, but IRIX software distribution CDs contain several processor-specific versions of fx. Booting fx from a CD on a local CD-ROM drive requires a processor-specific copy of sash on the CD, too.

    Table 2-1 shows which versions of sash and fx to use according to your processor type.

    Table 2-1. sash and fx Versions

    Processor Type

    sash Version

    fx Version

    IP17

    sashIP17

    fx.IP17

    IP19, IP20, IP22

    sashARCS

    fx.ARCS

    IP21, IP25, IP26, IP27

    sash64

    fx.64


  4. Boot fx from the Command Monitor. The command to boot fx depends upon the location of the copy of you are booting.

    • This command boots fx from the /stand directory on the system disk:

      >> boot stand/fx --x 
      

    • This command boots fx from an IRIX software release CD in a local CD-ROM drive, where the CPU type of the system is IP19, IP20, or IP22 and the CD-ROM drive is at drive address 4 on controller 0:

      >> boot -f dksc(0,4,8)sashARCS dksc(0,4,7)stand/fx.ARCS --x 
      

    • This command boots fx from an IRIX software release CD in a CD-ROM drive mounted at /CDROM on a remote system named dist, where the CPU type of the local system is IP21, IP25, IP26, or IP27:

      >> boot -f bootp()dist:/CDROM/stand/fx.64 --x 
      

  5. fx prompts you for each part of the disk name. The default answer is in parentheses and matches the system disk. The prompts are:

    fx: "device-name" = (dksc)
    fx: ctlr# = (0)
    fx: drive# = (1)
    fx: lun# = (0) 
    

    The default device name is dksc, which indicates a SCSI disk on a SCSI controller. (See the fx(1M) reference page for other device names.) The next two prompts ask you to specify the disk controller number and the drive address (unit) of the disk. The final prompt asks for the lun (logical unit) number. The logical unit number is typically used by only a few SCSI devices such as RAIDs (an array of disks with built-in redundancy) to address disks within the device. For regular disks, use logical unit number 0.

    For each prompt, press the Enter key for the default value or enter another value, followed by Enter.

    Once you answer the prompts, fx performs a disk drive test and you see the fx main menu:

    ---- please choose one (? for help. .. to quit this menu)----
    [exi]t               [d]ebug/                [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/          [exe]rcise/             [r]epartition/
    fx>
    

    The exit option quits fx, while the other commands take you to submenus. (The slash [/] character after a menu option indicates that choosing that option leads to a submenu.) For complete information on all fx options, see the fx(1M) reference page.

Invoking fx From IRIX

The procedure in this section describes how to invoke fx from IRIX.

  1. Make sure that the disk drive to be partitioned is not in use. That is, make sure that no filesystems are mounted and no programs are accessing the drive.

  2. As superuser, give the fx command:

    # fx "controller_type(controller,address,logical_unit)"
    

    The variables are:

    controller_type 

    The controller type. It is dksc for SCSI controllers. For other controller types, see the fx(1M) reference page.

    controller 

    The controller number for the disk.

    address 

    The drive address of the disk.

    logical_unit 

    The logical unit number for the device. It is used by only a few SCSI devices such as RAIDs (an array of disks with built-in redundancy) to address disks within the device. The logical_unit is normally 0.

    If you give the q command without arguments, you are prompted for these values. 

    fx first performs a drive test, then displays this menu:

    ---- please choose one (? for help. .. to quit this menu)----
    [exi]t               [d]ebug/                [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/          [exe]rcise/             [r]epartition/
    fx>
    

    The exit option quits fx, while the other commands take you to submenus. (The slash [/] character after a menu option indicates that choosing that option leads to a submenu.) For complete information on all fx options, see the fx(1M) reference page.

Creating Standard Partition Layouts

This section shows the procedure for repartitioning a disk so that it has one of the standard partition layouts. The example in this section changes a disk from separate root and usr partitions to a combined root and usr partition.

  1. From the fx main menu, choose the repartition option:

    ---- please choose one (? for help. .. to quit this menu)----
    [exi]t              [d]ebug/             [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/         [exe]rcise/          [r]epartition/
    fx> repartition
    
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      0: efs        3024 + 50652         1 + 25   
      1: raw       53676 + 81648        26 + 40   
      6: efs      135324 + 1925532      66 + 940  
      8: volhdr        0 + 3024          0 + 1    
     10: volume        0 + 2060856       0 + 1006 
    
    capacity is 2061108 blocks
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [ro]otdrive           [o]ptiondrive         [e]xpert
    [u]srrootdrive        [re]size
    

    You see the partition layout for the disk that you specified when fx was started, followed by the repartition menu. The rootdrive, usrrootdrive, and optiondrive options are used for standard partition layouts, and the resize option is used for custom partition layouts. The expert option, which appears only if fx is invoked with the -x option, enables custom partitioning functions. These functions can severely damage the disk when performed incorrectly, so they are unavailable unless explicitly requested with -x.

  2. To create a combined root and usr partition, choose the rootdrive option.

    fx/repartition> rootdrive
    

  3. A prompt appears that asks about the partition type. The possible types are shown in Table 1-2. For this example, choose efs:

    fx/repartition/rootdrive: type of data partition = (xfs) efs
    

  4. A warning appears; answer yes to the prompt after the warning:

    Warning: you will need to re-install all software and restore user data
    from backups after changing the partition layout.  Changing partitions
    will cause all data on the drive to be lost.  Be sure you have the drive
    backed up if it contains any user data.  Continue? yes
    
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      0: efs        3024 + 1976184       1 + 965  
      1: raw     1979208 + 81648       966 + 40   
      8: volhdr        0 + 3024          0 + 1    
     10: volume        0 + 2060856       0 + 1006 
    
    capacity is 2061108 blocks
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [ro]otdrive        [u]srrootdrive     [o]ptiondrive      [re]size
    

    The partition layout after repartitioning is displayed and the repartition submenu appears again.

  5. To return to the fx main menu, enter .. at the prompt:

    fx/repartition> ..
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [exi]t               [d]ebug/             [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/          [exe]rcise/          [r]epartition/
    fx> 
    

Creating Custom Partition Layouts

The following procedure describes how to repartition a disk so that it has a custom partition layout. As an example, this procedure repartitions a 380 MB SCSI drive to increase the size of the root partition.

  1. At the fx main menu, choose the repartition command:

    ---- please choose one (? for help. .. to quit this menu)----
    [exi]t              [d]ebug/             [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/         [exe]rcise/          [r]epartition/
    fx> repartition
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      0: efs        2835 + 32400         1 + 16
      1: rawdata   35235 + 81810        17 + 40
      6: efs      117045 + 513945       57 + 251
      7: efs        2835 + 628155        1 + 307
      8: volhdr        0 + 2835          0 + 1
     10: entire        0 + 630990        0 + 308
    
    capacity is 631017 blocks
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [ro]otdrive        [u]srrootdrive     [o]ptiondrive      [re]size
    

    You see the partition layout for the disk that you specified when fx was started, followed by the repartition menu. Look at the size column for partitions 0, 1, and 6. In this example, you have 32400 + 81810 + 513945 = 628155 blocks to use. Look at the start block numbers, and notice that partition 7 overlaps 0, 1, and 6. Partition 0 is the root filesystem, and is mounted on the system's root directory (/). Partition 1 is your system's swap space. Partition 6 is the usr filesystem, and it is mounted on the /usr directory. In this example, you will take space from the usr filesystem and expand the root filesystem.

  2. Choose the resize option to change the size of partitions on the disk and answer y to the warning message:

    fx/repartition> resize
    
    Warning: you will need to re-install all software and restore user data
    from backups after changing the partition layout.  Changing partitions
    will cause all data on the drive to be lost.  Be sure you have the drive
    backed up if it contains any user data.  Continue? y
    
    After changing the partition, the other partitions will
    be adjusted around it to fit the change.  The result will be
    displayed and you will be asked whether it is OK, before the
    change is committed to disk.  Only the standard partitions may
    be changed with this function.  Type ? at prompts for a list
    of possible choices
    

  3. The prompt after the warning message offers the swap space partition as the default partition to change, but in this example you will designate the root partition to be resized. Enter root at the prompt:

    fx/repartition/resize: partition to change = (swap) root
    current:  type efs       base:     2835 blks,    1 Mb
                  len:    32400 blks,  16 Mb
    

  4. The next prompt asks for the partitioning method (partition size units) with megabytes as the default. Other options are to use percentages of total disk space or numbers of disk blocks. Megabytes and percentages are the easiest methods to use to partition your disk. Press Enter to use megabytes as the method of repartitioning:

    fx/repartition/resize: partitioning method = (megabytes (2^20 bytes)) Enter
    

  5. The next prompt asks for the size of the root partition in megabytes. The default is the current size of the partition. For this example, increase the size to 20 MB:

    fx/repartition/resize: size in megabytes (max 307) = (16) 20
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      0: efs        2835 + 40960         1 + 20
      1: rawdata   43795 + 73250        21 + 36
      6: efs      117045 + 513945       57 + 251
      8: volhdr        0 + 2835          0 + 1
     10: entire        0 + 630990        0 + 308
    

    The new partition map is displayed. Note that the 4 megabytes that you added to your root partition were taken from the swap partition. Ultimately, you want those megabytes to come from the usr partition, but for the moment, accept the new partition layout.

  6. To accept the new partition layout, enter yes at the prompt:

    Use the new partition layout? (no) yes
    

    The new partition table is printed again, along with the total disk capacity. Then you are returned to the repartition menu.

  7. Select resize again to transfer space from the usr partition to the swap area:

    fx/repartition> resize
    

    You see the same warning message again.

  8. At the partition to change prompt, press Enter to change the size of the swap partition:

    fx/repartition/resize: partition to change = (swap) Enter
    current:  type raw       base:   43795 blks,   21 Mb
                              len:   73250 blks,   36 Mb
    

  9. Press Enter again to use megabytes as the method of repartition:

    fx/repartition/resize: partitioning method = (megabytes (2^20 bytes)) Enter
    

  10. The next prompt requests the new size of the swap partition. Since you added 4 megabytes to expand the root filesystem from 16 to 20 megabytes, enter 40 and press Enter at this prompt to expand the swap space to its original size. (If your system is chronically short of swap space, you can take this opportunity to add some space by entering a higher number.)

    fx/repartition/resize: size in megabytes (max 307) = (36) 40
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      0: efs        2835 + 40960         1 + 20
      1: rawdata   43795 + 81920        21 + 40
      6: efs      125715 + 505275       61 + 247
      8: volhdr        0 + 2835          0 + 1
     10: entire        0 + 630990        0 + 308
    

    You see the new partition table. Note that the partition table now reflects that 4 megabytes have been taken from partition 6 (usr) and placed in the swap partition.

  11. At the prompt, enter yes to accept the new partition layout:

    Use the new partition layout? (no) yes
    

    The new partition table and the repartition submenu are displayed again.

  12. Enter .. at the prompt to return to the fx main menu:

    fx/repartition> ..
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [exi]t               [d]ebug/             [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/          [exe]rcise/          [r]epartition/
    fx> 
    

After Repartitioning

  1. From the fx main menu, enter exit to quit fx.

    fx> exit
    

  2. If you repartitioned the system disk, you must now install software on it in one of two ways:

    • Bring up the miniroot (choose Install System Software from the System Maintenance menu); use the mkfs command on the Administrative Commands menu to make filesystems on the disk partition; and install an IRIX release and optional software.

    • Choose System Recovery from the System Maintenance menu and use the backup or system manager backup tape you created earlier to return the original files to the disk.

    If you repartitioned an option disk, use the mkfs command to create new filesystems on the disk partitions.

  3. Restore user files from backup tapes as necessary.

Creating Mnemonic Names for Device Files With ln

Device file names, for example /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0 and /dev/rdsk/dks0d2s7, can be difficult to remember and type. Mnemonic device names can solve this problem. They are filenames in the /dev directory that are symbolic links to the real device files. By default, IRIX has several of these mnemonic device file names. For example, /dev/root is a mnemonic device file name for /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0 (or whatever partition contains the root filesystem) and /dev/rswap is a mnemonic device file name for /dev/rdsk/dks0d1s1 (or whatever partition is the swap partition). You can create additional mnemonic device file names using the ln command:

# ln device_file mnemonic_name 

For more information on the ln command, see the ln(1) reference page.

Creating a System Disk From the PROM Monitor

This section describes how to install a system disk on a system that does not currently have a working system disk. It is used in these situations:

  • The new disk has no formatting or partitioning information on it at all, or the partitioning is incorrect.

  • It is an option disk that you must turn into a system disk.

If the system already has a working disk, you can use the procedure inCreating a New System Disk From IRIX” 

To turn a disk into a system disk, you must have an IRIX system software release CD available and a CD-ROM drive attached to the system or available on the network. If you are using a CD-ROM drive attached to a system on the network, that system must be set up as an installation server. See the IRIX Admin: Software Installation and Licensing guide for instructions.

These instructions assume that the system disk is installed on controller 0 at drive address 1. This is the standard location for workstations; the controller number is system-specific on servers. Follow these steps:

  1. Bring the system up into the System Maintenance menu.

  2. Invoke the Command Monitor by choosing the fifth item on the System Maintenance menu.

  3. Issue the hinv command, and use the CPU type and Table 2-1 to determine the version of standalone fx that you need to invoke. For example, a system with an IP19 processor is an ARCS processor, so the version of standalone fx needed is stand/fx.ARCS.

  4. Determine the controller and drive address of the device that contains the copy of fx that you plan to use (a CD-ROM drive attached to the system or a CD-ROM drive on a workstation on the network). For example, for a local CD-ROM drive, if hinv reports that the CD-ROM drive on the system is scsi(0), cdrom(4), the controller is 0 and the drive address is 4. The remainder of this example uses that device, although your device may be different or may be located on a different workstation.

  5. If you are installing over a network connection, get the IP address of the workstation with the CD-ROM drive.

  6. Insert the CD containing the IRIX system software release into the CD-ROM drive.

  7. Give a Command Monitor command to boot fx. For this example the command is:

    >> boot -f dksc(0,4,8)sashARCS dksc(0,4,7)stand/fx.ARCS --x 
    72912+9440+3024+331696+23768d+3644+5808 entry: 0x89f9a950
    112784+28720+19296+2817088+59600d+7076+10944 entry: 0x89cd74d0
    SGI Version 5.3 ARCS   Oct 18, 1994
    

    See Appendix A of the guide IRIX Admin, Software Installation and Licensing for a complete listing of appropriate commands to boot fx from CD-ROM on this or another workstation.

  8. Respond to the prompts by pressing the Enter key. These responses select the system disk:

    fx: “device-name” = (dksc) 
    fx: ctlr# = (0) Enter
    fx: drive# = (1) Enter
    fx: lun# = (0) 
    ...opening dksc(0,1,)
    ...drive selftest...OK
    Scsi drive type == SGI     SEAGATE ST31200N8640
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [exi]t             [d]ebug/           [l]abel/           [a]uto
    [b]adblock/        [exe]rcise/        [r]epartition/     [f]ormat
    

  9. Display the partitioning of the disk with the repartition command:

    fx> repartition
    
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      7: efs        3048 + 2074164       1 + 1013 
      8: volhdr        0 + 3048          0 + 1    
     10: volume        0 + 2077212       0 + 1014 
    
    capacity is 2077833 blocks
    

    Check the partition layout to see whether the disk needs repartitioning. See System Disks, Option Disks, and Partition Layouts” in Chapter 1 for information about standard partition layouts.

  10. If the disk doesn't need repartitioning, skip to step 13.

  11. Choose a disk partition layout. You can choose a standard system disk partition layout (described in System Disks, Option Disks, and Partition Layouts” in Chapter 1) or a custom partition layout.

  12. If you choose a standard system disk partition layout, follow the directions in Creating Standard Partition Layouts”. If you choose a custom partition layout, follow the instructions in Creating Custom Partition Layouts”.

  13. In preparation for a future step, check the contents of the volume header by giving this command:

    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [ro]otdrive           [o]ptiondrive         [e]xpert
    [u]srrootdrive        [re]size
    fx/repartition> label/show/directory
    
     0: sgilabel   block    3 size     512  2: sash       block 1914 size  159232
     1: ide        block    4 size  977920
    

    Verify that the volume header contains sash, a required file (it is listed as item 2 in this example).

  14. Quit fx and the Command Monitor so that you return to the System Maintenance menu:

    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [para]meters       [part]itions       [b]ootinfo         [a]ll
    [g]eometry         [s]giinfo          [d]irectory
    fx/label/show> ../../exit
    >> exit
    

  15. Choose the second option, Install System Software, from the System Maintenance menu.

    Because there is no filesystem on the root partition, error messages may appear. One example is the following message:

    Mounting file systems:
    
    /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0: Invalid argument
    No valid file system found on: /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0
    This is your system disk: without it we have nothing
    on which to install software.
    

    Another possible message indicates a problem, but does mount the root partition and bring up inst:

    Mounting file systems:
    
    mount: /root/dev/usr on /root/usr: No such file or directory
    mount: giving up on:
       /root/usr
    
    Unable to mount all local efs, xfs file systems under /root
    Copy of above errors left in /root/etc/fscklogs/miniroot
    
        /dev/miniroot            on  /
        /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0        on  /root
    
    Invoking software installation.
    

  16. If the system offers to make a filesystem, answer yes to the prompts:

    Make new file system on /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0 [yes/no/sh/help]: yes
    
    About to remake (mkfs) file system on: /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0
    This will destroy all data on disk partition: /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0.
    
            Are you sure? [y/n] (n): yes
    
            Block size of filesystem 512 or 4096 bytes? 4096
    
    Doing: mkfs -b size=512 /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0
    meta-data=/dev/rdsk/dks0d1s0     isize=256    agcount=8, agsize=248166 blks
    data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=248165
    log      =internal log           bsize=512    blocks=1000
    realtime =none                   bsize=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
    Mounting file systems:
    
    NOTICE: Start mounting filesystem: /root
    NOTICE: Ending clean XFS mount for filesystem: /root
        /dev/miniroot            on  /
        /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0        on  /root
    

  17. If the system offers to put you into a shell, go into the shell and manually make the root and, if appropriate, the usr filesystem. For example:

    Please manually correct your configuration and try again.
    
            Press Enter to invoke C Shell csh: Enter
    
    # mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0 
    meta-data=/dev/dsk/dks0d1s0      isize=256    agcount=8, agsize=31021 blks
    data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=248165
    log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=1000
    realtime =none                   bsize=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
    # exit
    

  18. If the inst main menu comes up and you did not make a root filesystem in step 16 or step 17, make the root and, if used, the usr filesystems, and mount them. For example:

    Inst> admin
    ...
    Admin> mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0
    
    Make new file system on /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0 [yes/no/sh/help]: yes
    
    About to remake (mkfs) file system on: /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0
    This will destroy all data on disk partition: /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0.
    
            Are you sure? [y/n] (n): yes
    
            Block size of filesystem 512 or 4096 bytes? 4096
    
    Doing: mkfs -b size=512 /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0
    meta-data=/dev/rdsk/dks0d1s0     isize=256    agcount=8, agsize=248166 blks
    data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=248165
    log      =internal log           bsize=512    blocks=1000
    realtime =none                   bsize=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
    Mounting file systems:
    
    NOTICE: Start mounting filesystem: /root
    NOTICE: Ending clean XFS mount for filesystem: /root
        /dev/miniroot            on  /
        /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0        on  /root
    
    
    Re-initializing installation history database
    Reading installation history .. 100% Done.
    Checking dependencies .. 100% Done.
    
    Admin> Enter
    

  19. Install IRIX software from the CD as usual.

  20. Install option software and patches from other CDs, if desired.

  21. If you don't need to modify the volume header to add sash (see step 13),you have finished creating the new system disk. You don't need to do the remaining steps in this procedure.

  22. In preparation for adding programs to the volume header of the disk, start a shell:

    Inst> sh
    

  23. Follow the instructions in the procedure in “Adding Files to the Volume Header With dvhtool” to add sash, if necessary, to the volume header of the system disk. Remember that the /stand directory is mounted at /root/stand.

  24. Exit from the shell:

    # exit
    

  25. Quit inst and bring up the system as usual.

    Inst> quit
    

Creating a New System Disk From IRIX

This procedure describes how to turn an option disk into a system disk. The option disk does not need to have a filesystem or be mounted prior to starting the procedure.


Caution: The procedure in this section destroys all data on the option disk. If the option disk contains files that you want to save, back up all files on the option disk to tape or another disk before beginning this procedure.

You can use this procedure when you want to change to a larger system disk, for example from a 1 GB disk to a 2 GB disk, or when you want to create a system disk that you can move to another system. With this procedure, you create a “fresh” disk by installing software from an IRIX system software CD. (To create an exact copy of a system disk, use Creating a New System Disk by Cloning instead.) Note that if you plan to create a system disk for another system, the systems must be identical because of hardware dependencies in IRIX.

You must perform this procedure as superuser. The procedure requires several system reboots, so other users should not be using the system.

Follow these steps to convert an option disk to a system disk:

  1. Using hinv, determine the controller and drive addresses of the disk to be turned into a system disk. In this procedure, the example commands and output assume that the disk is on controller 0 and drive address 2. Substitute your controller and drive address throughout these instructions.

  2. To repartition the disk so that it can be used as a system disk, begin by invoking fx:

    # fx 
    fx version 6.4, Sep 29, 1996
    

  3. Answer the prompts with the correct controller number and drive address for the disk you are converting and 0 for the lun number, for example:

    fx: “device-name” = (dksc) Enter
    fx: ctlr# = (0) Enter
    fx: drive# = (1) 2
    fx: lun# = (0) Enter
    ...opening dksc(0,2,0)
    ...drive selftest...OK
    Scsi drive type == SGI     SEAGATE ST31200N8640
    
    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [exi]t               [d]ebug/             [l]abel/
    [b]adblock/          [exe]rcise/          [r]epartition/
    

  4. Enter the repartition command:

    fx> repartition
    
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      7: efs        3024 + 2057832       1 + 1005
      8: volhdr        0 + 3024          0 + 1
     10: volume        0 + 2060856       0 + 1006
    
    capacity is 2061108 blocks
    

  5. Choose rootdrive or usrrootdrive, depending on whether you want a combined root and usr partition or separate root and usr partitions. (See the section System Disks, Option Disks, and Partition Layouts” in Chapter 1 for advantages and disadvantages of each.) In this example, a combined root and usr disk, configured for XFS, is chosen:

    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [ro]otdrive        [u]srrootdrive     [o]ptiondrive      [re]size
    
    fx/repartition> rootdrive
    
    fx/repartition/rootdrive: type of data partition = (xfs) Enter
    Warning: you will need to re-install all software and restore user data
    from backups after changing the partition layout.  Changing partitions
    will cause all data on the drive to be lost.  Be sure you have the drive
    backed up if it contains any user data.  Continue? y
    ----- partitions-----
    part  type        blocks          Megabytes   (base+size)
      0: xfs        3024 + 1976184       1 + 965  
      1: raw     1979208 + 81648       966 + 40   
      8: volhdr        0 + 3024          0 + 1    
     10: volume        0 + 2060856       0 + 1006 
    
    capacity is 2061108 blocks
    

  6. Quit fx:

    ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)-----
    [ro]otdrive        [u]srrootdrive     [o]ptiondrive      [re]size
    fx/repartition> ../exit
    

  7. Use the procedure in “Adding Files to the Volume Header With dvhtool” to examine the contents of the volume header of the disk to be converted and to add sash to its volume header if it is not there already.

  8. Make a root filesystem on the root partition of the disk you are converting. For example, to make an XFS root filesystem with 4 KB block size and a 1000 block internal log (the default values), give this command:

    # mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d2s0 
    

    For additional instructions on making an XFS filesystem, see “Planning an XFS Filesystem” in Chapter 6 and “Making an XFS Filesystem” in Chapter 6. There is no need to mount the filesystem after making it.

  9. If the disk has a separate usr partition, make a filesystem on that partition, too. For example:

    # mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d2s6 
    

  10. Insert a CD containing the IRIX release you plan to install into either your system's CD-ROM drive or a CD-ROM drive on a remote system.

  11. Shut down the system and bring up the miniroot from the CD. For instructions, see the guide IRIX Admin: Software Installation and Licensing.

  12. Switch to the Administrative Commands menu, unmount the root and usr (if used) partitions from the old system disk, and mount the root and usr (if used) partitions of the new disk in their place. For example, if the old system disk has root and usr partitions and the new system disk has only a root partition, the commands are:

    Inst> admin
    Admin> umount /root
    Admin> umount /root/usr
    Admin> mount /dev/dsk/dks0d2s0 /root
    Admin> Enter
    

  13. Confirm that the root and usr (if used) partitions of the new system disk are mounted as /root and /root/usr (if used). This example shows the output for the example in step 12:

    Inst> sh df
    
    Filesystem             Type  blocks     use     avail  %use Mounted on
    /dev/miniroot           xfs    49000    32812    16188  67  /
    /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0       xfs  1984325      251  1984074   0  /root
    


    Caution: If the wrong partitions are mounted, inst installs system software onto the wrong partitions, which destroys the data on those partitions.


  14. Install system software from this CD and options and patches from other CDs as usual. Instructions are in the guide IRIX Admin: Software Installation and Licensing.

  15. Quit inst and bring the system back to IRIX (the system boots the old system disk).

  16. To test the new system disk before replacing the old system disk or moving the disk to a different system, begin by shutting down the system to the PROM Monitor.

  17. Bring up the Command Monitor by choosing the fifth item on the System Maintenance menu.

  18. Boot the system in single user mode from the new system disk by issuing the following commands. This example uses controller 0 and drive address 2; substitute the values for the new system disk in the first and second positions of each of the three triples of numbers in this example.

    >> setenv initstate s 
    >> boot -f dksc(0,2,8)sash dksc(0,2,0)unix root=dks0d2s0 
    

  19. Run MAKEDEV and autoconfig:

    # cd /dev 
    # ./MAKEDEV 
    # /etc/autoconfig -f 
    

  20. Restart the system in multiuser mode with the reboot command.

The new system disk is ready to replace the system disk on this system or another system with the same hardware configuration. 

Creating a New System Disk by Cloning

This procedure describes how to turn an option disk into an exact copy of a system disk. Use this procedure when you want to set up two or more systems with identical system disks. The systems must have identical processor and graphics types.


Caution: The procedure in this section destroys all data on the option disk. If the option disk contains files that you want to save, back up all files on the option disk to tape or another disk before beginning this procedure.

You must perform this procedure as superuser. To ensure that the system disk that you create is identical to the original system disk, the system should be in single user mode.

  1. List the disk partitioning of the system (root) disk by invoking prtvtoc without parameters, for example:

    # prtvtoc
    Printing label for root disk
    
    * /dev/root (bootfile “/unix”)
    *     512 bytes/sector
    Partition  Type  Fs   Start: sec    Size: sec   Mount Directory
     0          xfs  yes        4096      4138249  
     1          raw          4142345       262144  
     8       volhdr                0         4096  
    10       volume                0      4404489  
    

  2. List the disk partitioning of the option disk that is to be the clone, for example:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/dks0d2vh
    ...
    Partition  Type  Fs   Start: sec    Size: sec   Mount Directory
     0          efs             3024        50652
     1          raw            53676        81648
     6          efs           135324      1925532
     8       volhdr                0         3024
    10       volume                0      2060856
    

  3. Compare the disk partitioning of the two disks. They must have the same layout for the root and (if used) the usr partition. If they are not the same, repartition the option disk to match the system disk using the procedure in “Repartitioning a Disk With fx”.

  4. Use the procedure in “Adding Files to the Volume Header With dvhtool” to check the contents of the volume header of the option disk and add programs, if necessary, by copying them from the system disk.

  5. Make a new filesystem on the root partition of the option disk. For example, to make an XFS root filesystem with a 4 KB block size and a 1000 block internal log (the default values), give this command:

    # mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d2s0 
    

    For additional instructions on making an XFS filesystem, see “Planning an XFS Filesystem” in Chapter 6 and “Making an XFS Filesystem” in Chapter 6. There is no need to mount the filesystem after making it.

  6. If there is a separate usr partition, make a new filesystem on the usr partition of the option disk, for example:

    # mkfs /dev/dsk/dks0d2s6 
    

  7. Create a temporary mount point for the option disk filesystems, for example:

    # mkdir /clone 
    

  8. Mount the root filesystem of the option disk and change directories to the mount point, for example:

    # mount /dev/dsk/dks0d2s0 /clone 
    # cd /clone 
    

  9. Use dump (for EFS filesystems) or xfsdump (for XFS filesystems) to copy the root filesystem on the system disk to the root filesystem of the option disk. The dump command is:

    # dump 0f - / | restore xf - 
    

    The xfsdump command is:

    # xfsdump -l 0 - / | xfsrestore - . 
    

  10. If the disks do not have a usr partition, skip to step 13.

  11. In preparation for copying the usr filesystem, mount the usr filesystem instead of the root filesystem:

    # cd ..
    # umount /clone
    # mount /dev/dsk/dks0d2s6 /clone
    # cd /clone
    

  12. Use dump (for EFS filesystems) or xfsdump (for XFS filesystems) to copy the usr filesystem on the system disk to the usr filesystem of the option disk. The dump command is:

    # dump 0f - /usr | restore xf - 
    

    The xfsdump command is:

    # xfsdump -l 0 - /usr | xfsrestore - . 
    

  13. Unmount the filesystem mounted at the temporary mount point and remove the mount point, for example:

    # cd ..
    # umount /clone 
    # rmdir /clone 
    

    The option disk is now an exact copy of the system disk. It can be moved to a system with the same hardware configuration.

Adding a New Option Disk


Tip: You can use the Disk Manager in the System Toolchest to add a new option disk. For instructions, see “Setting Up a New Hard Disk ” in Chapter 3 of the Personal System Administration Guide. The section “Taking Advantage of a Second Disk” in Chapter 6 of the Personal System Administration Guide provides ideas for making effective use of an option disk.

To add a new option disk to a system using shell commands, follow these steps:

  1. Install the hardware. See the owner's guide for the system.

  2. Initialize the volume header, if necessary. See “Formatting and Initializing a Disk With fx”.

  3. Partition the new disk, if necessary. It should be partitioned as an option disk. See “Repartitioning a Disk With fx” for instructions.

  4. In preparation for the next step, identify the type of controller that the new disk is attached to (integral SCSI controller or non-integral controller). See the section “Listing the Disks on a System With hinv” for instructions.

  5. To add an option disk on an integral SCSI controller to a system, use the Add_disk command to perform the remaining steps to configure the disk:

    # Add_disk controller_number drive_address lun_number
    

    If you are adding a second disk on controller 0 to your system, you do not have to specify the disk, controller number, or logical unit number; adding disk 2 on controller 0 is the default. If you are adding a third (or greater) disk, or if you are adding a disk on a controller other than controller 0, you must specify the disk and controller. If the disk device has a logical unit number different from zero, it must be specified.

    Add_disk checks for valid filesystems on the disk, and if any filesystems are present, you are warned and asked for permission before the existing filesystems are destroyed and a new filesystem is made.

    The Add_disk command performs these tasks:

    • Creates the character and raw device files for the new disk

    • Creates an XFS filesystem on the disk

    • Creates the mount directory

    • Mounts the filesystem

    • Adds the mount order to the /etc/fstab file

  6. For an option disk on a non-integral controller, complete the configuration of the new option disk by making a filesystem. Use the instructions in one of these sections in Chapter 6, “Creating and Growing Filesystems”: “Making an XFS Filesystem” in Chapter 6 or “Making a Filesystem From inst” in Chapter 6.

IRIX Admin: Disks and Filesystems
(document number: 007-2825-013 / published: 2005-08-06)    table of contents  |  additional info  |  download

    Front Matter
    What's New in This Guide
    IRIX Admin Manual Set
    About This Guide
    Chapter 1. Disk Concepts
    Chapter 2. Performing Disk Administration Procedures
    Chapter 3. XLV Logical Volume Concepts
    Chapter 4. Creating and Administering XLV Logical Volumes
    Chapter 5. Filesystem Concepts
    Chapter 6. Creating and Growing Filesystems
    Chapter 7. Maintaining Filesystems
    Chapter 8. System Administration for Guaranteed-Rate I/O
    Appendix A. EFS Filesystems
    Index


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